During 1990, more films were being presented as ‘family friendly’ animations, as they were being marketed for both children and adults. The industry had to develop new languages for expressing difference in film. This was because the context of animated films as they became more modern are no longer able to support the culture of racism and sexism which was prevalent in many earlier films, these modern animations must be, ‘politically correct.’ Disney tried to sidestep any racial issues by not including people of colour at all in there work in many years.
Women are becoming more empowered in recent films. Although there is still sexualisation and supplemental positions, frequently rein-scribed through heterosexual romances and racialisation. The assigning of specific gender roles and expectations of gender on these characters creates limitations in the characters developments and the overall empowerment of the character.
Modes of Production and Consumption
In 1995 Pixar introduces CG animation. Animated films are now produced for global audiences instead of just domestic consumers. While animation used to be considered exclusively for children, adults now watch them just as eagerly.
Post Modern Fictions
Animations commercially seem to dedicate themselves to retelling classic tales. Until Toy Story animation focused mainly of fairy tale classics and were often musicals featuring songs that crossed into the charts. Now animated film has become increasingly ironic. Abandoning the old fairy tale aesthetic to take on more modern culture and pop culture parody. (Ie Shrek.) Parody in film as an important way of making the film relevant.
Racial and sexual pedagogies in animation
Animated characters tend to be racialised especially in mainstream animation studios. Shark Tale: Oscars mannerisms, accent and location show his colour rather than his design. Predominantly all characters are Heterosexual. Hetero-normal representations. Traditional Disney animation showed the young attractive princess character in need of rescue from an unfair situation. They are passive characters. In more modern films the femininity and strength of female characters has become much more assertive giving females the chance to break away on their own without relying on male intervention. Mulan, A good film to analyse for femininity and citizenship. Leaving behind traditional feminine conventions to take on the very masculine role of the soldier. She is given honorary American citizenship as she acts more American than Chinese her personality is not Chinese.